We use a variety of indicators to manage our performance in relation to our top corporate goals. We have defined growth and profitability as key targets within finance-related areas. Our focus therefore is on improving sales and operating result (EBIT). These are the most significant financial performance indicators. Moreover, we aim to minimize working capital and improve free cash flow. Our Group’s Planning and Management System has been designed to provide a variety of instruments in order to assess current business developments and derive future strategy and investment decisions. This involves the continuous monitoring of key financial indicators within the PUMA Group and a monthly comparison with budget targets. Any deviations from the targets are analyzed in detail and appropriate countermeasures are taken in the event such deviations have a negative impact.
Changes in sales are also influenced by currency exchange effects. This is why we also state any changes in sales in Euro, the reporting currency, adjusted for currency exchange effects in order to provide information that is relevant to the decision-making process when assessing the revenue position. Currency-adjusted sales are used for comparison purposes and are based on the values that would arise if the foreign currencies included in the consolidated financial statements were not translated at the average rates for the previous reporting year, but were instead translated at the corresponding average rates for the current year. As a result, currency-adjusted figures are not to be regarded as a substitute or as superior financial indicators, but should instead always be regarded as additional information.
We use the indicator free cash flow in order to determine the change in cash and cash equivalents after deducting all expenses incurred to maintain or expand the organic business of the PUMA Group. Free cash flow is calculated from the cash flow from operating activities and investment activities. We also use the indicator free cash flow before acquisitions, which goes beyond free cash flow and includes an adjustment for incoming and outgoing payments that are associated with shareholdings.
We use the indicator working capital in order to assess the financial position. Working capital is essentially the difference between current assets - including in particular inventories and trade receivables - and current liabilities. Cash and cash equivalents, the positive and negative market values of derivative financial instruments and current finance and lease liabilities are not included in working capital.
Non-financial performance indicators are of secondary importance at PUMA.
The calculation of the key financial control parameters that PUMA uses is defined as follows:
The recognition of sales is based on the provisions of IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers.
PUMA's gross profit is calculated as sales minus cost of sales. Cost of sales mainly comprise the carrying amounts of inventory that were recognized as expenses during the reporting period. The gross profit margin is calculated as gross profit divided by sales.
PUMA’s operating result (EBIT) is the sum of sales and royalty and commission income, minus cost of sales and other operating income and expenses (OPEX). EBIT is defined as operating result, less depreciation and amortization, provisions and impairment loss, before interest (= financial result) and before taxes. The financial result includes interest income and interest expenses as well as currency conversion differences. The EBIT margin is calculated as EBIT divided by sales.
PUMA’s working capital is calculated based on the sum of current assets less the sum of current liabilities. In addition, cash and cash equivalents and positive and negative market values of derivative financial instruments are deducted. The market values of derivative financial instruments are recognized in the balance sheet in the items Other Current Assets and Other Current Liabilities not attributable to working capital. Current financial and lease liabilities are also not part of working capital.
We also use the EBITDA indicator, which represents the operating result before interest (= financial result), taxes and depreciation and amortization, to assess the results of operations. EBITDA is calculated based on the operating result (EBIT) adding depreciation and amortization, which may also contain any incurred impairment expenses relating to non-current assets. The EBITDA margin is calculated as EBITDA divided by sales.