Under the PUMA and Cobra Golf brand names, PUMA SE and its subsidiaries are engaged in the development and sale of a broad range of sports and sports lifestyle products, including footwear, apparel and accessories. The company is a European stock corporation (Societas Europaea/SE) and parent company of the PUMA Group; its registered office is on PUMA WAY 1, 91074 Herzogenaurach, Germany. The competent registry court is in Fürth (Bavaria), the register number is HRB 13085.
The consolidated financial statements of PUMA SE and its subsidiaries (hereinafter shortly referred to as the Group or PUMA) were prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) accounting standards issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), as they are to be applied in the EU, and the supplementary accounting principles to be applied in accordance with Section 315e(1) of the German Commercial Code (HGB). The IASB standards and interpretations, as they are to be applied in the EU, which are mandatory for financial years as of January 1, 2022, have been applied.
The items contained in the financial statements of the individual Group companies are measured based on the currency that corresponds to the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates. The consolidated financial statements are prepared in euros (EUR or €). The presentation of amounts in millions of euros with one decimal place may lead to rounding differences since the calculation of individual items is based on figures presented in thousands.
The cost of sales method is used for the consolidated income statement.
The following new or amended standards and interpretations have been used for the first time in the current financial year:
|First-time adoption in the current financial year|
|Amendments to IFRS 3||References to the Conceptual Framework|
|Amendments to IAS 37||Onerous contracts: Contract performance costs|
|Amendments to IAS 16||Property, plant and equipment: Proceeds before intended use|
|Annual Improvements 2018-2020||Improvements to IFRS 1, IFRS 9, IFRS 16 and IAS 41|
The amendments to the standards and interpretations described below, which were to be initially adopted as of January 1, 2022, did not affect the PUMA consolidated financial statements.
The amendments update IFRS 3 such that the standard now refers to the 2018 conceptual framework and no longer to the 1989 conceptual framework. Two additions were also included. When identifying liabilities taken on as part of a business combination, in the case of transactions and similar events within the scope of application of IAS 37 or IFRIC 21, a buyer must precisely apply these provisions (instead of the conceptual framework). The express statement was also included that contingent receivables acquired in the course of a business combination are not to be recognized. This change has no effect on the PUMA consolidated financial statements.
The amendments to IAS 37 stipulate that the contract performance costs are costs that relate directly to the contract. These may be either additional costs for the performance of this contract (e.g. direct labor costs, materials) or an allocation of other costs directly related to the performance of contracts (e.g. the allocation of depreciation for an item of property, plant and equipment, which is used in the performance of the contract). This change has no effect on the PUMA consolidated financial statements.
The amendments to IAS 16 mean that it is not permissible to deduct from the costs of property, plant and equipment the income arising from the sale of goods that are produced while property, plant and equipment are brought to the location intended by management and rendered in their intended operational state. Instead, a company records the income from such disposals and the costs of producing these goods in the operating result. Costs for test runs to check whether the property, plant and equipment is functioning properly continue to be an example of directly attributable costs. This change has no effect on the PUMA consolidated financial statements.
The following standards and interpretations have been released but will only become effective in later reporting periods and are not applied earlier by the Group:
|Standard||Title||Date of adoption*||Planned adoption|
|IFRS 17 (including amendment IFRS 17)||Insurance contracts||01/01/2023||01/01/2023|
|Amendments to IAS 1||Disclosure of accounting policies||01/01/2023||01/01/2023|
|Amendments to IAS 8||Definition of accounting estimates||01/01/2023||01/01/2023|
|Amendments to IAS 12||Deferred taxes relating to assets and liabilities from a single transaction||01/01/2023||01/01/2023|
|Amendments to IAS 17||First-time application of IFRS 17 and IFRS 9 – Comparative information||01/01/2023||01/01/2023|
|Amendments to IAS 1||Classification of liabilities as current or non-current||01/01/2024||01/01/2024|
|Amendments to IFRS 16||Lease liabilities as part of a sale and leaseback transaction||01/01/2024||01/01/2024|
|Amendments to IAS 1||Non-current liabilities with covenants||01/01/2024||01/01/2024|
|Amendments to IFRS 10 and IAS 28||Sale or contribution of assets||postponed indefinitely|
PUMA does not expect any significant effects on the net assets, financial position and results of operations from these amendments. However, the amendment to IAS 12 leads to a change in future disclosures in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.
The consolidated financial statements were prepared as of December 31, 2022, the reporting date of the annual financial statements of the PUMA SE parent company, on the basis of uniform accounting and valuation principles according to IFRS, as applied in the EU.
Subsidiaries are companies in which the Group has existing rights that give it the current ability to direct the relevant activities. The main activities are those that have a significant influence on the profitability of the company. Control is therefore considered to exist if the Group is exposed to variable returns from its relationship with a company and has the power to govern those returns through its control of the relevant activities. As a rule, control is based on PUMA’s direct or indirect majority of the voting rights. Consolidation begins at the point in time from which control is possible. It ends when this no longer exists.
The recognition of business combinations is based on the acquisition method. The assets, debts and contingent liabilities that can be identified as part of a business combination are generally stated at their fair value as of the acquisition date, regardless of the size of non-controlling interests. For each acquisition, there is a separately exercisable option whether the non-controlling interests are measured at fair value or at the proportionate share of net assets.
The surplus of the consideration transferred that exceeds the Group’s share in the net assets stated at fair value is recognized as goodwill. If the consideration transferred is lower than the amount of the net assets stated at fair value, the difference is recognized directly in the income statement.
With respect to the controlling interests, losses attributable to non-controlling interests are allocated to the latter even if this results in a negative balance in non-controlling interests.
Intra-group receivables and liabilities are offset against each other. Offsetting differences resulting from exchange rate effects are generally recognized in the income statement to the extent that they arose in the reporting period. Where receivables and liabilities are of a long-term nature and replace capital, the currency difference is recognized directly in other comprehensive income.
In the course of the expense and income consolidation, inter-company sales and intra-group income are offset against the expenses attributable to them. Interim profits not yet realized within the Group as well as intra-group investment income are eliminated.
In addition to PUMA SE, the consolidated financial statements include all subsidiaries in which PUMA SE directly or indirectly holds existing rights that give it the current ability to direct the relevant activities. At present, control of all Group companies is based on a direct or indirect majority of voting rights.
Associated companies are generally accounted for in the Group using the equity method. As of December 31, 2022, the Group does not hold any investments in associated companies.
The changes in the number of Group companies (including the parent company PUMA SE) in the financial year 2022 were as follows:
|Formation of companies||1|
|Disposal of companies||2|
The addition to the group of consolidated companies relates to the formation of PUMA United Aviation North America LLC, USA.
The departures from the group of consolidated companies relate to the merger of PUMA India Corporate Services Private Ltd., India within the group of consolidated companies, and the liquidation of World Cat Sourcing India Private Ltd., India.
The changes in the group of consolidated companies did not have a significant effect on the net assets, financial position and results of operations.
The Group companies are allocated to regions as follows:
|AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2022|
|No.||Companies/Legal Entities||Country||City||Shareholder||Share of Capital|
|2.||Austria Puma Dassler Gesellschaft m.b.H.||Austria||Salzburg||direct||100%|
|3.||stichd austria gmbh||Austria||Salzburg||indirect||100%|
|4.||Puma Czech Republic s.r.o.||Czech Republic||Prague||indirect||100%|
|5.||PUMA DENMARK A/S||Denmark||Aarhus||indirect||100%|
|6.||PUMA Estonia OÜ||Estonia||Tallinn||indirect||100%|
|7.||PUMA Finland Oy||Finland||Helsinki||indirect||100%|
|8.||PUMA FRANCE SAS||France||Strasbourg||indirect||100%|
|9.||stichd france SAS||France||Boulogne Billancourt||indirect||100%|
|10.||PUMA International Trading GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||direct||100%|
|11.||PUMA Europe GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||direct||100%|
|12.||PUMA Sprint GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||direct||100%|
|13.||PUMA Mostro GmbH||Germany||Herzogenaurach||indirect||100%|
|14.||stichd germany Gmbh||Germany||Düsseldorf||indirect||100%|
|15.||PUMA UNITED KINGDOM LTD||Great Britain||London||indirect||100%|
|16.||PUMA PREMIER LTD||Great Britain||London||indirect||100%|
|17.||STICHD UK LTD||Great Britain||Mansfield||indirect||100%|
|18.||STICHD SPORTMERCHANDISING UK LTD||Great Britain||London||indirect||100%|
|19.||GENESIS GROUP INTERNATIONAL LIMITED||Great Britain||Manchester||direct||100%|
|20.||Sport Equipment Hellas S. A. of Footwear, Apparel and Sportswear u.Li.||Greece||Athens||direct||100%*|
|21.||PUMA ITALIA S.R.L.||Italy||Assago||indirect||100%|
|22.||STICHD ITALY SRL||Italy||Assago||indirect||100%|
|23.||Puma Sport Israel Ltd. In Liq||Israel||Herzliya||indirect||100%|
|24.||PUMA MALTA LIMITED||Malta||St. Julians||indirect||100%|
|25.||Puma Benelux B.V.||Netherlands||Leusden||direct||100%|
|26.||PUMA International Sports Marketing B.V.||Netherlands||Leusden||direct||100%|
|27.||stichd group B.V.||Netherlands||‘s-Hertogenbosch||direct||100%|
|28.||stichd international B.V.||Netherlands||‘s-Hertogenbosch||indirect||100%|
|29.||stichd sportmerchandising B.V.||Netherlands||‘s-Hertogenbosch||indirect||100%|
|31.||stichd logistics B.V.||Netherlands||‘s-Hertogenbosch||indirect||100%|
|32.||stichd licensing B.V.||Netherlands||‘s-Hertogenbosch||indirect||100%|
|33.||PUMA NORWAY AS||Norway||Fornebu||indirect||100%|
|34.||PUMA POLSKA sp. z o.o.||Poland||Warsaw||indirect||100%|
|35.||PUMA SPORTS ROMANIA SRL||Romania||Voluntari||indirect||100%|
|37.||PUMA SPORTS DISTRIBUTORS (PTY) LTD||South Africa||Cape Town||indirect||100%|
|38.||PUMA SPORTS S A (PTY) LTD||South Africa||Cape Town||indirect||100%|
|39.||PUMA IBERIA SLU||Spain||Madrid||direct||100%|
|40.||STICHDIBERIA S.L.||Spain||Cornella de Llobregat||indirect||100%|
|42.||PUMA Nordic AB||Sweden||Helsingborg||indirect||100%|
|43.||Nrotert Sweden AB||Sweden||Helsingborg||indirect||100%|
|44.||stichd nordic AB||Sweden||Helsingborg||indirect||100%|
|45.||MOUNT PUMA AG||Switzerland||Oensingen||direct||100%|
|46.||Puma Retail AG||Switzerland||Oensingen||indirect||100%|
|47.||stichd switzerland AG||Switzerland||Egerkingen||indirect||100%|
|48.||PUMA Spor Giyim Sanayi ve Tricaret A.S.||Turkey||Istanbul||indirect||100%|
|49.||PUMA UKRAINE LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY||Ukraine||Kyiv||indirect||100%|
|50.||PUMA Middle East FZ-LLC||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||indirect||100%|
|51.||PUMA UAE (L.L.C)||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||indirect||100%|
|52.||PUMA Sports Argentina S.A. (former Unisol S.A.)||Argentina||Buenos Aires||indirect||100%|
|53.||PUMA Sports Ltda.||Brazil||Sao Paulo||indirect||100%|
|54.||PUMA Canada, Inc.||Canada||Toronto||indirect||100%|
|55.||PUMA United Canada ULC||Canada||Vancouver||indirect||51%|
|56.||PUMA CHILE SpA||Chile||Santiago||direct||100%|
|57.||PUMA SERVICIOS SpA||Chile||Santiago||indirect||100%|
|58.||PUMA México Sport, S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||direct||100%|
|59.||Importaciones RDS, S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||direct||100%|
|60.||GLOBAL LICENSE STICHD GROUP MEXICO S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||indirect||100%|
|61.||Importationes Brand Plus Licensing S.A. de C.V.||Mexico||Mexico City||indirect||100%|
|62.||Distribuidora Deportivo PUMA S.A.C.||Peru||Lima||indirect||100%|
|63.||Distribuidora Deportivo PUMA Tacna S.A.C.||Peru||Tacna||indirect||100%|
|64.||PUMA Sports LA S.A.||Uruguay||Montevideo||direct||100%|
|65.||PUMA Suede Holding, Inc.||USA||Wilmington||indirect||100%|
|66.||PUMA North America, Inc.||USA||Wilmington||indirect||100%|
|67.||Cobra Golf Incorporated||USA||Wilmington||indirect||100%|
|68.||PUMA United Aviation North America LLC||USA||Wilmington||indirect||70%|
|69.||PUMA United Canada Holding, Inc.||USA||Wilmington||indirect||100%|
|70.||PUMA United North America LLC||USA||Dover||indirect||51%|
|71.||Janed Canada, LLC||USA||Dover||indirect||51%|
|72.||stichd NA, Inc.||USA||Lewes||indirect||100%|
|73.||PUMA Australia Pty. Ltd.||Australia||Melbourne||indirect||100%|
|74.||White Diamond Australia Pty. Ltd.||Australia||Melbourne||indirect||100%|
|75.||White Diamond Properties Pty. Ltd.||Australia||Melbourne||indirect||100%|
|76.||PUMA China Ltd. (彪马（上海）商贸有限公司)||China||Shanghai||indirect||100%|
|77.||stichd Trading (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (斯梯起特贸易（上海）有限公司)||China||Shanghai||indirect||100%|
|78.||Guangzhou World Cat Information Consulting Services Company Ltd. (广州寰彪信息咨询服务有限公司)||China||Guangzhou||indirect||100%|
|79.||World Cat Ltd. (寰彪有限公司)||China||Hong Kong||direct||100%|
|80.||Development Services Ltd.||China||Hong Kong||direct||100%|
|81.||PUMA International Trading Services Ltd.||China||Hong Kong||indirect||100%|
|82.||PUMA ASIA PACIFIC LTD (彪馬亞太區有限公司)||China||Hong Kong||direct||100%|
|83.||PUMA Hong Kong Ltd. (彪馬香港有限公司)||China||Hong Kong||indirect||100%|
|84.||stichd Limited||China||Hong Kong||indirect||100%|
|85.||PUMA Sports India Private Ltd.||India||Bangalore||indirect||1005|
|86.||PT. PUMA Cat Indonesia||Indonesia||Jakarta||indirect||100%|
|87.||PT PUMA Sports Indonesia||Indonesia||Jakarta||indirect||100%|
|88.||PUMA Japan K.K. (プーマ ジャパン株式会社)||Japan||Tokyo||indirect||100%|
|89.||PUMA Korea Ltd. (푸마코리아 유한회사)||(South) Korea||Seoul||direct||100%|
|90.||Stichd Korea Ltd||(South) Korea||Incheon||indirect||100%|
|91.||PUMA Sports Goods Sdn. Bhd.||Malaysia||Petaling Jaya||indirect||100%|
|92.||STICHD SOUTHEAST ASIA SDN. BHD.||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||indirect||100%|
|93.||PUMA New Zealand Ltd.||New Zealand||Auckland||indirect||100%|
|94.||PUMANILA IT SERVICES INC.||Philippines||City of Makati||indirect||100%|
|95.||PUMA Sports Philippines Inc.||Philippines||City of Makati||indirect||100%|
|96.||PUMA Sports SEA Trading Pte. Ltd.||Singapore||indirect||100%|
|97.||PUMA SEA Holding Pte. Ltd.||Singapore||indirect||100%|
|98.||PUMA Taiwan Sports Ltd. (台灣彪馬股份有限公司）||China (Taiwan)||Taipei||indirect||100%|
|99.||PUMA Sports (Thailand) Co., Ltd.||Thailand||Bangkok||indirect||100%|
|100.||World Cat Vietnam Sourcing & Development Services Company Limited (CÔNG TY TNHH DỊCH VỤ PHÁT TRIỂN & NGUỒN CUNG ỨNG WORLD CAT VIỆT NAM)||Vietnam||Ho Chi Minh City||indirect||100%|
PUMA Mostro GmbH, PUMA Sprint GmbH, PUMA International Trading GmbH and PUMA Europe GmbH have made use of the exemption provision under Section 264(3) of the German Commercial Code (HGB).
In general, monetary items in foreign currencies are converted in the individual financial statements of the Group companies at the exchange rate valid on the balance sheet date. Any resulting currency gains and losses are immediately recognized in the income statement. Non-monetary items are converted at historical acquisition and manufacturing cost.
The assets and liabilities of foreign subsidiaries, whose functional currency is not the euro, have been converted to euros at the exchange rates valid on the balance sheet date. Expenses and income have been converted at the annual average exchange rates. Any differences resulting from the currency conversion of net assets relative to exchange rates that had changed in comparison with the previous year were adjusted directly in other comprehensive income.
The significant conversion rates per euro are as follows:
|Currency||Reporting date exchange rate||Average exchange rate||Reporting date exchange rate||Average exchange rate|
In 2022, accounting for hyperinflationary economies was first applied in accordance with IAS 29. In the case of Argentina and Turkey, which are in an environment of hyperinflation, with retroactive effect from January 1, 2022, the carrying amounts of non-monetary assets and liabilities, equity and other comprehensive income were converted into the unit of measurement applicable as of the balance sheet date for the financial year 2022, thereby adjusting them to the price changes. The financial statements are based on the concept of historical acquisition and/or production costs. The exchange rate as of December 31, 2022 was used for translation into the reporting currency, the euro, for all items. In accordance with IAS 21.42, comparative amounts from previous periods do not need to be adjusted.
Gains and losses on the net monetary position are included in the financial result. In the 2022 financial year, gains on the net monetary position amounted to € 0.9million. This amount also includes interest income from cash and cash equivalents invested, in accordance with IAS 29.28.
As of December 31, 2022, the price index used for Turkey was 1,128.45 (December 31, 2021: 686.95) and is based on the consumer price index. The general price index used for Argentina was 1,134.3 as of December 31, 2022 (December 31, 2021: 582.46).
In the previous year, the effects of the currency area Argentina, which has been in a hyperinflationary environment since 2018, were analyzed in accordance with IAS 29 and IAS 21.42. The application of the aforementioned standards to the PUMA SE consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2021 would have resulted in an increase in assets of € 20.6 million (mainly property, plant and equipment, intangible assets, deferred tax items and inventories) and an adjustment of equity of € 20.6 million. Furthermore, the operating result (EBIT) would have decreased by € 1.2 million. The effects on the consolidated financial statements were considered insignificant and did not lead to an adjustment in the context of the group accounting.
Financial instruments are classified and recognized in accordance with IFRS 9. Acquisitions and disposals of financial assets, with the exception of trade receivables, are initially recognized on the settlement date and are recorded at fair value. Under IFRS 9, the subsequent measurement of financial instruments is carried out according to the classification at amortized cost (AC), at fair value through profit or loss (FVPL) or at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI). The classification is based on two criteria: the Group’s business model for asset management and the question of whether the contractual cash flows of the financial instruments represent “exclusively payments of principal and interest” toward the outstanding principal amount.
For investments (equity instruments), IFRS 9 allows a measurement at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI) under certain conditions. If these investments, however, are disposed of or adjusted in value, the gains and losses from these investments which were not realized up to this point are reclassified to retained earnings in accordance with IFRS 9.
In relation to the accounting of hedge relationships, PUMA made use of the option to continue applying the rules of IAS 39 for hedge accounting.
Derivative financial instruments are recognized at fair value at the time a contract is entered into and thereafter. At the time a hedging instrument is concluded, PUMA classifies the derivatives either as hedges of a planned transaction (cash flow hedge accounting) or as hedges of the fair value of a recognized asset or liability (fair value hedge).
At the time when the transaction is concluded, the hedging relationship between the hedging instrument and the underlying transaction as well as the purpose of risk management and the underlying strategy are documented. In addition, assessments as to whether the derivatives used in the hedge accounting compensate effectively for a change in the fair value or the cash flow of the underlying transaction are documented at the beginning of the hedge accounting and continuously thereafter.
Changes in the market value of derivatives that are intended and suitable for cash flow hedges and that prove to be effective are adjusted directly in other comprehensive income, taking into account deferred taxes. If there is no complete effectiveness, the ineffective part is recognized in the income statement. The amounts recognized in other comprehensive income are recognized in the income statement during the same period in which the hedged planned transaction affects the income statement. If, however, a hedged future transaction results in the recognition of a non-financial asset or a liability, gains or losses previously recorded in other comprehensive income are included in the initial measurement of the acquisition costs of the respective asset or liability.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that qualify for and are designated as fair value hedges are recognized directly in the consolidated income statement, together with changes in the fair value of the underlying transaction attributable to the hedged risk. The changes in the fair value of the derivatives and the change in the underlying transaction attributable to the hedged risk are reported in the consolidated income statement under the item relating to the underlying transaction.
The fair values of the derivative instruments used to hedge planned transactions (cash flow hedge accounting) and to hedge the fair value of a recognized asset or liability (fair value hedge) are shown under Other current and non-current financial assets or liabilities.
PUMA has concluded leases exclusively as lessee.
The leases are each identified at an individual contract level. For all leases, PUMA recognizes a right-of-use asset and a respective lease liability, with the exception of short-term leases (defined as leases with a term of no more than 12 months) and low-value lease agreements (with a value of less than € 5,000 at contract conclusion). In the case of a short-term lease or low-value lease, the Group recognizes the lease payments on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease agreement as other operating expense.
In addition, right-of-use assets are not recognized for intangible assets. PUMA has made use of the option and decided not to apply IFRS 16 with regard to leases for intangible assets.
The lease liability at initial recognition is measured at the present value of the not yet paid lease payments at the beginning of the lease agreement. The present value is calculated using the incremental borrowing rate, as the interest rate implicit in the lease is usually not known.
The following lease payments are included in the measurement of the lease liability:
A number of lease agreements, particularly for real estate properties, contain extension and termination options. When determining agreement terms, all facts and circumstances are taken into account that offer a financial incentive to exercise the extension option or not to exercise the termination option. The changes in the term of a lease due to the exercise or non-exercise of such options are only taken into account for the agreement term if they are sufficiently certain.
The lease liability is recognized as a separate line item on the consolidated balance sheet.
PUMA applies the practical recognition exemption with regard to COVID-19 rent concessions to all rent concessions falling within the scope of this measure. Where the conditions are met, the rent concessions will be represented on the balance sheet as if they were variable lease payments. Consequently, the rent concessions will be recognized in the income statement in the period in which they were granted.
The subsequent measurement of the lease liability is done by increasing the carrying amount by adding the accrued interest of the lease liability (using the effective interest method) and by reducing the carrying amount of the lease liability by the lease payments made. Where COVID-19-related rent concessions involve the exemption from lease payments, the carrying amount of the lease liability is reduced by the exempted lease payments.
If the term of the lease has changed and this is not a COVID-19-related rent concession, or if a material event has led to a change in the assessment relating to the exercise of a purchase option, PUMA will remeasure the lease liability by discounting the adjusted lease payments using an updated interest rate and will adjust the corresponding right-of-use asset accordingly.
If lease payments have changed due to index or interest rate changes or due to a change in the expected payments to be made due to a residual value guarantee, PUMA will remeasure the lease liability by discounting the adjusted lease payments using an unchanged discount rate. The corresponding right-of-use asset is adjusted accordingly.
If a lease is changed and this is not a COVID-19-related rent concession, and the change in the lease is not recognized as a separate lease, PUMA will remeasure the lease liability based on the lease term for the new lease. As part of this, the changed lease payments are discounted using the updated interest rate at the time the change becomes effective.
The right-of-use assets comprise the respective lease liability as part of initial measurement. Lease installments that are paid before or at the beginning of the lease are added. Lease incentives received from the lessor are deducted and initial direct costs are included. If dismantling obligations exist with regard to the leased assets, they are included in the measurement of the right-of-use assets. The subsequent measurement of the right-of-use assets is at acquisition cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.
The right-of-use assets are generally depreciated over the term of the lease. If the useful life of the asset underlying the lease is shorter, this limits the depreciation period accordingly. Depreciation starts with the commencement of the lease.
Variable lease payments that are not dependent on an index or interest rate are not included in the valuation of the lease liabilities and the right-of-use. These payments are recognized in the income statement as other operating expenses as soon as PUMA has received the underlying benefit. This applies primarily to turnover-based rents for retail stores.
As part of the practical expedient, IFRS 16 permits dispensing with a separation between non-lease components and lease components. With regard to land and buildings, PUMA generally does not apply the practical expedient so that the right-of-use assets relating to land and buildings only contain leasing components. With regard to other right-of-use assets (comprising technical equipment & machines and motor vehicles), the practical expedient is generally applied, the result of which is that the leasing components and non-leasing components are both recognized.
The right-of-use assets are recognized as a separate line item in the consolidated balance sheet.
The rights of use are subject to the impairment regulations pursuant to IAS 36. As a general rule, the right-of-use assets are tested for impairment (impairment test) if there is any indication that the value of the asset could be impaired. The right-of-use assets, in particular in connection with the Group’s own retail stores, are subjected to an impairment test if there are indicators or changes in planning assumptions that suggest that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. To this end, a triggering event test of all retail stores, each of which is a separate cash-generating unit, is carried out after preparation of the annual budget planning or on an ad-hoc basis.
For the purposes of the triggering event test, the recoverable amount of the respective retail stores is determined as a value in use using a simplified discounted cash flow method. The value in use is determined on the basis of the planned cash flows for the retail stores according to the budget, which is prepared on a bottom-up basis and approved by management. The forecast period is derived from the expected useful lives of the respective retail store and is reviewed annually. Following the bottom-up budget, revenue and cost developments are used as a basis for the remaining useful life, the growth rate of which is based on expected nominal retail growth. In the three-year detailed planning period, growth rates in the single-digit percentage range are recorded for all retail stores. In determining the value in use of the retail stores, cash flows in countries without hyperinflation were discounted at a weighted cost of capital rate of between 8.2% and 25.3% (previous year: between 4.7% and 19.7%) and the cash flow of retail stores in the two hyperinflationary countries with a weighted cost of capital rate of between 20.0% and 62.7% (previous year: between 18.0% and 64.4%). This was based on a risk-free interest rate on equivalent term structures of 2.3% (previous year: -0.1%) and a market risk premium of 7.3% (previous year: 7.8%).
If, in the triggering event test, the carrying amount of the retail store assets exceeds the simplified value in use, the recoverable amount of this cash-generating unit is calculated with the discounted cash flow method using the above cost of capital rates. This is based on the individual planning of cash flows for the retail store. If an impairment arises, the right of use is impaired first.
For the retail stores in Russia that have been closed since March 2022, the value in use of the retail stores was determined by applying the expected cash flow approach. The expected cash flow approach allows the use of various probability-weighted scenarios to present the future business development in value in use in Russia. The value in use is compared with the carrying amount of the net assets allocated to the retail store (in particular, right-of-use assets from the lease, tenant fixtures, net working capital and proportionate corporate assets allocated to the central areas).
If there are indications that retail stores for which impairment has been recorded in the past have been able to achieve a turnaround and that their rights of use are recoverable, the impairment is reversed up to a maximum of the amount of amortized costs.
If there is an impairment loss or a reversal of an impairment loss, this is allocated to the central area in the segment reporting under IFRS 8. However, the impaired assets are reported in the relevant operating segments.
Cash and cash equivalents include cash and bank balances. This also includes free cash and cash equivalents that are invested as a fixed-term deposit with a term of up to three months. The total amount of cash and cash equivalents is consistent with the cash and cash equivalents stated in the cash flow statement.
Cash and cash equivalents are measured at amortized cost. They are subject to the impairment requirements in accordance with IFRS 9 “Financial Instruments”. PUMA monitors the credit risk of these financial instruments taking into account the economic situation, external credit rating and/or premiums for credit default swaps (CDS) of other financial institutions. The credit risk from cash and cash equivalents is classified as immaterial, due to the relatively short terms and the investment-grade credit rating of the counterparty, which signals a low probability of default.
The Group procures inventories primarily from third parties and these are reported as goods within inventories. To a small extent, footwear and golf clubs are produced in-house, which are reported as finished goods together with the goods within the inventories.
Inventories are measured at acquisition or manufacturing cost or at the lower net realizable values derived from the net realizable value on the balance sheet date. The acquisition cost of merchandise is determined using an averaging method. Value adjustments are adequately recorded, depending on age, seasonality and realizable market prices.
Trade receivables are initially measured at the transaction price and subsequently at amortized cost with deduction of value adjustments, in the form of a provision for risks. According to IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, the transaction price is the amount of consideration expected by the Company, not taking into account the amounts collected on behalf of third parties.
When determining the provision for risks for trade receivables, PUMA uniformly applies the simplified method in order to determine the expected credit losses over the remaining lifetime of the trade receivables (called “lifetime expected credit losses”) in accordance with the provisions of IFRS 9 “Financial Instruments”. For this, trade receivables are classified by geographic region into suitable groups with shared credit risk characteristics. The expected credit losses are calculated using a matrix that presents the age structure of the receivables and depicts a likelihood of loss for the individual maturity bands of the receivables on the basis of historic credit loss events and future-based factors. The percentage rates for the loss likelihoods are checked regularly to ensure they are up to date. If objective indications of a credit impairment are found regarding the trade receivables of a certain customer, a detailed analysis of this customer’s specific credit risk is conducted and an individual provision for risks is established for the trade receivables with respect to this customer. If a credit insurance is in place, it is taken into account when determining the amount of the risk provision.
The Group assumes that the default risk of a financial asset has increased significantly if it is more than 30 days overdue.
Other financial assets are classified based on the business model for control and the cash flows of the financial assets. In the Group, financial assets are generally held under a business model that provides for “holding” the asset until maturity, in order to collect the contractual cash flows. The second condition is that the terms and conditions of the financial asset result in cash flows at specified times, which exclusively represent repayments and interest payments on the outstanding nominal amount.
The trading business model is used for financial assets in the form of derivatives without a hedging relationship. These are valued at fair value through profit or loss (FVPL).
Non-current financial assets include rental deposits and other assets. Non-interest-bearing non-current assets are discounted to present value if the resulting effect is significant.
The investment recognized under non-current financial assets belongs to the category measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI), since these investments are held over the long term for strategic reasons.
All purchases and disposals of investments are recorded on the settlement date. Investments are initially recognized at fair value plus transaction costs. They are also recognized at fair value in subsequent periods. Unrealized gains and losses are recognized in other comprehensive income, taking into account deferred taxes. The gain or loss on disposal of investments is transferred to retained earnings.
The category “measured at fair value through profit or loss” (FVPL) is not used with regard to investments.
Property, plant and equipment are measured at acquisition cost, net of accumulated depreciation. The depreciation period depends on the expected useful life of the respective item. The straight-line method of depreciation is applied. The useful life depends on the type of the assets involved. Buildings are subject to a useful life of between ten and fifty years, and a useful life of between three to ten years is assumed for movable assets.
Repair and maintenance costs are recorded as an expense as of the date on which they were incurred. Substantial improvements and upgrades are capitalized to the extent that the criteria for capitalization of an asset item apply.
Goodwill resulting from a business combination is calculated based on the difference between the transferred consideration and the Group’s share in the fair value of the acquired assets and liabilities.
Goodwill amounts are allocated to the Group’s cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the synergy effects resulting from the business combination.
An impairment test of goodwill per group of cash-generating units (usually the smallest company level at which goodwill is monitored) is performed once a year and whenever there are indicators of impairment, and can result in an impairment loss. There is no reversal of an impairment loss for goodwill. See chapter 11 for further details, in particular regarding the assumptions used for the calculation.
Acquired intangible assets largely consist of concessions, intellectual property rights and similar rights. These are measured at acquisition cost, net of accumulated amortization. The useful life of intangible assets is between three and ten years. Scheduled depreciation is done on a straight-line basis.
If the capitalization requirements of IAS 38.57 Intangible Assets are met cumulatively, expenses in the development phase for internally generated intangible assets are capitalized at the time they arise. In subsequent periods, internally generated intangible assets and acquired intangible assets are measured at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses. In the Group, internally generated intangible assets are generally depreciated on a straight-line basis over a useful life of 3 years.
There are also trademark rights acquired for a fee in relation to Cobra Golf. Cobra Golf, founded in 1978, has a brand history spanning over 40 years in golf. The Cobra brand represents the core of the Golf business area and is continued through ongoing marketing investments by the PUMA Group in the Cobra brand. Due to the stability of the golf market and the continuation of the brand by PUMA, an indefinite useful life is assumed for the Cobra brand.
Intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are not amortized according to schedule but are subjected to an annual impairment test. Property, plant and equipment, right-of-use assets, and other intangible assets with finite useful lives are tested for impairment if there is any indication of impairment in the value of the asset concerned. In order to determine whether there is a requirement to record the impairment of an asset, the recoverable amount of the respective asset (the higher amount of the fair value less costs to sell and value in use) is compared with the carrying amount of the asset. If the recoverable amount is lower than the carrying amount, the difference is recorded as an impairment loss. The test for impairment is performed, if possible, at the level of the respective individual asset, otherwise at the level of the cash-generating unit. Goodwill, on the other hand, is tested for impairment only at the level of a group of cash-generating units. If it is determined within the scope of the impairment test that an asset needs to be impaired, then the goodwill, if any, of the group of cash-generating units is written down initially and, in a second step, the remaining amount is distributed proportionately over the remaining assets within the application scope of IAS 36. If the reason for the recorded impairment no longer applies, a reversal of impairment loss is recorded to the maximum amount of the amortized costs. There is no reversal of an impairment loss for goodwill.
The recoverable amount is primarily calculated using the discounted cash flow method. For determining the fair value less costs to sell and value in use, the expected cash flows are based on corporate planning data. Expected cash flows are discounted using an interest rate in line with market conditions. As part of the fair value determination less cost to sell, no special synergies of cash-generating units are taken into account, and corporate planning data is adjusted to the assumptions of market participants, if required. Moreover, there is a difference between the fair value less costs to sell and the value in use because the costs to sell are also taken into account.
Trademarks with an indefinite useful life are subjected to an impairment test based on the relief from royalty-method during the financial year or when the occasion arises. If there is evidence that the underlying Cobra business is insufficiently profitable, the trademark is not only valued individually using the relief from royalty-method, but the recoverable amount of the cash-generating units to which the trademark is attributable is determined.
See chapter 11 for further details, in particular regarding the assumptions used for the calculation.
In general, these items are recognized at their acquisition cost, taking into account transaction costs, and subsequently recognized at amortized cost. Non-interest or low-interest-bearing liabilities with a term of at least one year are recognized at present value, taking into account an interest rate in line with market conditions, and are compounded until their maturity at their repayment amount.
The trading business model is used for financial liabilities in the form of derivatives without a hedge relationship. These are valued at fair value through profit or loss (FVPL).
Current financial liabilities also include those long-term loans that have a maximum residual term of up to one year.
PUMA offers its suppliers a supplier financing program. This is reverse factoring, the financing conditions of which are also linked to the achievement of sustainability targets by the suppliers in most cases. Participation in the program is voluntary for the suppliers and helps them to already pre-finance the supplier invoices to PUMA from one of the partner banks against an interest discount significantly before the customary payment date. PUMA is not affected by the participation of the suppliers in the supplier financing program (in particular no changes to the payment terms, no changes to the payment methods and/or no changes to the original contractual conditions). Accordingly, the liabilities are recognized in the balance sheet as trade payables, and cash outflows are allocated to the cash inflow from operating activities in the cash flow statement.
In addition to defined benefit plans, some companies apply defined contribution plans, which do not result in any additional pension commitment other than the current contributions. The pension provision under defined benefit plans is generally calculated using the projected unit credit method. This method takes into account not only known pension benefits and pension rights accrued as of the reporting date, but also expected future salary and pension increases. The defined benefit obligation (DBO) is calculated by discounting expected future cash outflows at the rate of return on senior, fixed-rate corporate bonds. The currencies and maturity periods of the underlying corporate bonds are consistent with the currencies and maturity periods of the obligations to be satisfied. In some of the plans, the obligation is accompanied by a plan asset. In that case, the pension provision shown is reduced by the plan asset.
Revaluations, consisting of actuarial profits and losses, changes resulting from use of the asset ceiling and return on plan assets (without interest on the net debt) are immediately recorded in other comprehensive income. The revaluations recorded in other comprehensive income are part of the retained earnings and are no longer reclassified into the income statement. Past service costs are recorded as an expense if changes are made to the plan.
Details regarding the assumed life expectancy, the mortality tables used and other assumptions are shown in chapter 15.
Provisions are recognized if the Group, as a result of a past event, has a current obligation and this obligation is likely to result in an outflow of resources with economic benefits, the amount of which can be reliably estimated. The provisions are recognized at their settlement value as determined on the basis of the best possible estimate and are not offset by income. Non-current provisions are discounted.
Provisions for the expected expenses from warranty obligations pursuant to the respective national sales contract laws are recognized at the time of sale of the relevant products, according to the best estimate in relation to the expenditure needed in order to fulfill the Group’s obligation.
Provisions are also recognized to account for onerous contracts. An onerous contract is assumed to exist where the unavoidable costs for fulfilling the contract exceed the economic benefit arising from this contract.
Treasury stock is deducted from equity at its market price as of the date of acquisition, plus incidental acquisition costs. Pursuant to the authorization of the Annual General Meeting, treasury stock can be repurchased for any authorized purpose, including the flexible management of the Company’s capital requirements.
PUMA uses cash-settled share-based payments, share-based payments settled in cash or equities, and key performance indicator-based long-term incentive programs. The share-based payments settled in cash or equities are accounted for in the same way as cash-settled share-based payments.
For cash-settled share-based payments, a liability is recorded for the services received and measured with its fair value upon recognition. Until the debt is cleared, its fair value is recalculated on every balance sheet date and on the settlement date and all changes to the fair value are recognized in the income statement.
During the three-year term of the respective programs, the medium-term targets of the PUMA Group with regard to sales, operating result (EBIT), cash flow and working capital as a percentage of sales are determined for key performance indicator compensation processes and recognized in the income statement as other provisions along with their respective degree of target achievement.
The Group recognizes sales from the sale of sporting goods. The sales are measured at fair value of the consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled from the contract with customers, taking into account returns, discounts and rebates. Amounts collected on behalf of third parties (such as VAT) are not included in sales. The Group records sales at the time when PUMA fulfills its performance obligation to customers and has transferred the right of disposal over the product to customers.
The Group sells footwear, apparel and accessories both to wholesalers and directly to customers through its own retail activities and online sales channels. Meanwhile, the sales-related warranty services cannot be purchased separately and do not lead to services that go beyond the assurance of the specifications at the time of the transfer of risk. Accordingly, the Group records warranties in the balance sheet in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets.
In the case of sales of products to wholesalers, the sales revenue is recorded at the date on which the right of disposal over the products is transferred to customers, in other words, when the products have been shipped to the specific location of the wholesaler (delivery). After delivery, the wholesaler bears the inventory risk and has full right of disposal over the manner and means of distribution and the selling price of the products. In the case of sales to end customers in the Group’s own retail stores, the sales are recorded at the date when the right of disposal over the products is transferred to the end customer, in other words, the date on which the end customer buys the products in the retail store. The payment of the purchase price is due as soon as the customers purchase the products. In the case of sales of goods through our own online sales channels, sales are realized when the end customers have accepted the goods and the power of disposal over the goods has been passed to the end customer. The payment terms applied correspond to the standard industry payment terms for each country.
Under certain conditions and according to the contractual stipulations, customers have the option to exchange products or return them for a credit. The amount of the expected returns is estimated on the basis of past experience and is deducted from sales in the form of a liability based on refund obligations. The asset value of the right arising from the product return claim is recorded under inventories and leads to a corresponding reduction of cost of sales.
The Group records royalty and commission income from the licensing of trademark rights to third parties. Income from royalties is recognized in the income statement in accordance with the invoices to be submitted by the licensees. In certain cases, values must be estimated in order to permit accounting on an accrual basis. Commission income is invoiced if the underlying purchase transaction is classified as realized.
Advertising expenses are recognized in the income statement at the time they are incurred. In general, promotional expenses stretching over several years are recognized as an expense over the contractual term on an accrual basis. Any expenditure surplus exceeding the economic benefit that results from this allocation of expenses after the balance sheet date is recognized in the financial statements in the form of an impairment of assets and, if necessary, a provision for anticipated losses. If promotional and advertising contracts provide for additional payments when predefined targets are achieved (e.g. medals, championships), which cannot be predicted exactly in terms of time and amount, they are recorded in full in profit or loss at the relevant time.
PUMA continuously develops new products in order to meet market requirements and market changes. Research costs are expensed in full at the time they are incurred. Development costs are also recognized as an expense when they do not meet the recognition criteria of IAS 38 “Intangible Assets.”
Starting in the financial year 2020, PUMA has received government grants related to income on a global level as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic; these have then been deducted from the corresponding expenses in the income statement. Grants are received via country-specific, one-off emergency aid schemes relating to the global COVID-19 pandemic and via country-specific short-time work programs, provided that they meet the requirements of IAS 20 and other comparable measures.
Pursuant to IAS 20.7, government grants related to income are recognized when there is reasonable assurance that the entity will comply with the conditions attached to them and the grants will be received.
The financial result includes interest income from financial investments and interest expenses from loans, along with interest income and expenses in connection with derivative financial instruments. Financial results also include interest expenses from lease liabilities as well as discounted, non-current liabilities associated with acquisitions and those arising from the measurement of pension commitments.
Exchange rate effects that can be directly allocated to an underlying transaction are shown in the respective income statement item.
Current income taxes are determined in accordance with the tax regulations of the respective countries where the individual Group companies conduct their operations.
PUMA management regularly assesses individual tax issues to determine whether there is scope for interpretation in view of existing tax regulations. If appropriate, these issues are taken into account in income tax liabilities or deferred taxes. The income tax assessment is generally carried out at the level of the individual case, taking into account any possible interactions. Appropriate balance sheet provisions have been made for potential risks from uncertain tax positions, taking into account IFRIC 23. Depending on which value best reflects the expectation, the most likely value or the expected value is used for the valuation.
Deferred taxes resulting from temporary valuation differences between the IFRS and tax balance sheets of individual Group companies and from consolidation procedures, which are levied by the same taxation authority and can be netted, are charged to each taxable entity and recognized either as deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities.
With regard to the leases that were capitalized, the tax deduction potential is allocated to the respective right-of-use asset. If temporary differences arise during subsequent valuation from a netting perspective of right-of-use asset and lease liability, deferred tax items will be created, provided the requirements under IAS 12 are met.
Deferred tax assets may also include claims for tax reductions that result from the expected utilization of existing losses carried forward to subsequent years and which is likely to materialize. Deferred tax assets or liabilities may also result from accounting treatments that do not affect the income statement. Deferred taxes are calculated on the basis of the tax rates that apply to the reversal in the individual countries and that are in force or adopted as of the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax assets are recognized only to the extent that the respective tax advantage is likely to materialize. Deferred tax assets are not recognized if they do not meet this criterion on the basis of the past results of operations and the business expectations for the foreseeable future.
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires some assumptions and estimates that have an impact on the measurement and presentation of the recognized assets and liabilities, income and expenses, and contingent liabilities. The assumptions and estimates are based on premises, which in turn are based on currently available information. In individual cases, the actual values may deviate from the assumptions and estimates made. Consequently, future periods involve a risk of adjustment to the carrying amount of the assets and liabilities concerned. If the actual development differs from the expectation, the premises and, if necessary, the carrying amounts of the relevant assets and liabilities are adjusted with an effect on profit or loss.
All assumptions and estimates are continuously reassessed. They are based on historical experiences and other factors, including expectations regarding future global and industry-related trends that appear reasonable under the current circumstances. PUMA applies scenarios that assume that the situation created by the COVID-19 pandemic will not be long term. Accordingly, PUMA does not expect that the impact on the consolidated financial statements will be significant or serious. Assumptions and estimates mainly relate to the valuation of goodwill and trademarks, inventories, liabilities from refund obligations, taxes and leases. The most significant forward-looking assumptions and sources of estimation and uncertainty as of the reporting date concerning the above-mentioned items are discussed below.
A review of the impairment of goodwill is based on the calculation of the value in use as a leading valuation concept. In order to calculate the value in use, the Group must estimate the future cash flows from those cash-generating units to which the goodwill is allocated. To this end, the data used were from the three-year plan, which is based on forecasts of the overall economic development and the resulting industry-specific consumer behavior. As it is currently difficult to predict what the global consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic will be in the short and medium term, these assumptions and estimates are generally subject to increased uncertainty. However, it is assumed that the global economy will gradually return to normal in 2023 due to the availability of vaccines against COVID-19 and the progress made with immunizing large parts of the population in PUMA’s key markets. Another key assumption concerns the determination of an appropriate interest rate for discounting the cash flow to present value (discounted cash flow method). The relief from royalty-method is used to value brands. See chapter 11 for further details, in particular regarding the assumptions used for the calculation.
Inventories are measured at acquisition or manufacturing cost or at the lower net realizable values derived from the selling price at the balance sheet date. Value adjustments are adequately recorded, depending on age, seasonality and realizable market prices. Further details on the inventory valuation are provided in chapter 4.
The Group recognizes sales from the sale of sporting goods. The sales are measured at fair value of the consideration to which the Group expects to be entitled from the contract with customers, taking into account returns, discounts and rebates. As customers have the opportunity to exchange goods under certain conditions and in accordance with the contractual agreements, the amount of expected return deliveries is estimated on the basis of experience. The accrual of sales takes place via the liability from refund obligations. See chapter 13 for further information.
Tax items are determined taking into account the various prevailing local tax laws and the relevant administrative opinions and, due to their complexity, may be subject to different interpretations by persons subject to tax on the one hand and the tax authorities on the other hand. Differing interpretations of tax laws may result in subsequent tax payments for past years; these are included based on the assessment of the management, using the most probable amount or the expected value for the individual case.
The recognition of deferred taxes requires that estimates and assumptions be made concerning future tax planning strategies as well as expected dates of occurrence and the amount of future taxable income. The taxable income from the relevant corporate planning is derived for this assessment. It takes into account the past financial position and the business development expected in the future. Due to the currently difficult to predict short- and medium-term consequences of the global COVID-19 pandemic, these assumptions and estimates are generally subject to increased uncertainty. Deferred tax assets are recorded in the event of companies incurring a loss only if it is highly probable that future positive results will be achieved. See chapter 8 for further information and details about assumptions.
The measurement of the lease liabilities is based on assumptions for the discount rates used, the lease term and the determination of fixed lease payments. To determine the present value of future minimum lease payments, PUMA uses country- and currency-specific interest rates on borrowings with compatible terms. In addition to the basic lease period, the Group includes extension options in the determination of the lease term if management is sufficiently certain that such an option will be exercised after taking into account all facts and circumstances. The fixed lease payments also include firmly agreed upon minimum amounts for agreements with a predominantly variable lease amount.
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires discretionary decisions relating to the application of accounting methods and the amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses reported. Information on the application of accounting policies that have the most material impact on the amounts recorded in the financial statements can be found in the following notes:
The determination as to whether the Group controls the companies with non-controlling interests is presented in chapter 28 Information on non-controlling interests.
The option to adjust the previous year's comparative figures was exercised such that no adjustment was made to the comparative figures for the previous year. The disclosures are included in chapter 2 Significant consolidation and accounting and valuation principles in the currency translation section.
The accounting for leases includes discretionary decisions, in particular in relation to the term of the lease agreements with regard to determining whether the exercise of extension options is sufficiently certain.
Some real estate leases contain extension options that can only be exercised by PUMA and not by the lessor. If possible, the Group seeks to include extension options when concluding new leases in order to ensure operational flexibility. On the date of provision, the Group assesses whether it is sufficiently certain that the extension options will be exercised. The assessment is carried out individually for each contract and takes into account the amount of the company's own investments and the possibility of changing macroeconomic conditions in the future. If significant events or significant changes occur during the term of the contract that are within PUMA's control, it will be reassessed as to whether it is sufficiently certain that the extension option will be exercised.
Significant discretionary decisions are made in the subsequent valuation of rights of use for retail stores in the context of assessing the existence of an impairment and determining the impairment requirement. Among other things, assumptions are made about the duration of the lease, the future economic development and profitability of the retail stores, and also the underlying interest rate. In determining the value in use as part of the impairment test for the retail stores in Russia, assumptions were made in particular about the occurrence of different scenarios and their probability of occurrence.