Management system

We use a variety of indicators to manage our performance in relation to our top corporate goals. We have defined growth and profitability as key targets within finance-related areas. Our focus therefore is on improving our sales and operating result (EBIT). These are the most significant financial performance indicators. Moreover, we aim to minimise working capital and improve free cash flow. Our Group's Planning and Management System has been designed to provide a variety of instruments in order to assess current business developments and derive future strategy and investment decisions. This involves the continuous monitoring of key financial indicators within the PUMA Group and a monthly comparison with budget targets. Any deviations from the targets are analysed in detail and appropriate countermeasures are taken in the event such deviations have a negative impact.

Changes in sales are also influenced by currency exchange effects. This is why we also state any changes in sales in euros, the reporting currency, adjusted for currency exchange effects in order to provide information that is relevant to the decision-making process when assessing the revenue position. Currency-adjusted sales are used for comparison purposes and are based on the values that would arise if the foreign currencies included in the consolidated financial statements were not converted at the average rates for the previous year, but were instead translated at the corresponding average rates for the current year. In the case of countries that are in a hyperinflationary environment, the previous year's amounts are not converted at the reporting date rates of the previous year, but at those of the current reporting year. As a result, currency-adjusted figures are not to be regarded as a substitute or as superior financial indicators, but should instead always be regarded as additional information.

We use the indicator free cash flow in order to determine the change in cash and cash equivalents after deducting all expenses incurred to maintain or expand the organic business of the PUMA Group. Free cash flow is calculated from the cash flow from operating activities and investment activities. We also use the indicator free cash flow before acquisitions, which goes beyond free cash flow and includes an adjustment for incoming and outgoing payments that are associated with shareholdings.

We use the indicator working capital in order to assess the financial position. Working capital is essentially the difference between current assets – including in particular inventories and trade receivables – and current liabilities. Cash and cash equivalents, the positive and negative market values of derivative financial instruments and current finance and lease liabilities are not included in working capital.

Besides the above mentioned significant indicators, sustainability and creating stakeholder value is an important aspect of PUMA’s overall business performance. Acting in a responsible manner and continuously improving PUMAs impacts on the environment and people are not only expected by our employees, consumers and investors but also supports our financial performance. Since many years, and in line with our current 10FOR25 sustainability strategy, we use several indicators to assess PUMA’s performance against environmental and social criteria. Those indicators relate to climate action, human rights (including occupational health and safety) as well as circularity and are part of the performance bonus of our leadership team globally. Since a large portion of PUMAs impact on the environment and people is created in our supply chain, we also include supply chain specific sustainability performance indicators in our annual reporting. For further details, please refer to the sustainability section of this report and our corporate website.

The calculation of the financial control parameters that PUMA uses is defined as follows:

The recognition of sales is based on the provisions of IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers.

PUMA's gross profit is calculated as sales minus cost of sales. Cost of sales mainly comprise the carrying amounts of inventory that were recognised as expenses during the reporting period. The gross profit margin is calculated as gross profit divided by sales.

PUMA's operating result (EBIT) is the sum of sales and royalty and commission income, minus cost of sales and other operating income and expenses (OPEX). EBIT is defined as operating result, less depreciation and amortisation, provisions and impairment loss, before interest (= financial result) and before taxes. The financial result includes interest income and interest expenses, currency conversion differences and the effects from the net position of monetary items in connection with hyperinflation accounting. The EBIT margin is calculated as EBIT divided by sales.

PUMA's working capital is calculated based on the sum of current assets less the sum of current liabilities. In addition, cash and cash equivalents and positive and negative market values of derivative financial instruments are deducted. The market values of derivative financial instruments are recognised in the balance sheet in the items Other Current Assets and Other Current Liabilities not attributable to working capital. Current financial and lease liabilities are also not part of working capital.

We also use the EBITDA indicator, which represents the operating result before interest (= financial result), taxes and depreciation and amortisation, to assess the results of operations. EBITDA is calculated based on the operating result (EBIT) adding depreciation and amortisation, which may also contain any incurred im­pairment expenses relating to non-current assets. The EBITDA margin is calculated as EBITDA divided by sales.